This site presents a detailed chronology/timeline of the Reformation, particularly its main leaders.    This website informs interested readers about each Reformer in relation to the activities of other Reformers. 

Aid to reading:  This website is purposefully presented in a simple format.  Feel free to print any portion for personal or classroom use at no charge; if you do so, please contact me  so I can keep a record of such printings.  This website is a work in process and was begin in the Summer of 2002.  The author, Dr. Mark Nickens, received his Ph.D. in Church History in 1999.   All entries are referenced, although not on this website; if you would like a source for any entry, contact Mark.  Questions/comments/critiques encouraged; contact Mark at 

To see a Calvin's list of relics, click here

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2008-2012 Mark Nickens

1228 Jul 9:  Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton died; he is credited with dividing the Bible into chapters; for division of verses see 1551.
1257 The Sorbonne was founded by Robert de Sorbon, chaplain and confessor of King Louis IX of France, for the education of 20 theological students.
1417 Martin V, Pope from 1417-1431, after the Great Schism.
1431 Eugenius IV, Pope from 1431 - 1447.
1440 Lorenzo Valla published a work which invalidated the Donation of Constantine.
1443 Giuliano della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II, born.
1447 Nicholas V, Pope from 1447-1455.
1452 Leonardo da Vinci born.
1455 Callistus III, Pope from 1455 - 1458.

By this year Gutenberg had printed app. 180 copies of the Bible in Mainz:  145 on paper, rest on vellum.

1458 Pius II, Pope from 1458-1464
1459 Adrian Dedel, the future Hadrian VI, born.
1460 Johann Froben born.
1463 Frederick III (the Wise) born.
1464 Paul II, Pope from 1464-1471.
1465 Johann Tetzel probably born in this year.
1467 John Colet born.
1468 Gutenberg died.

Alessandro Farnese, the future Paul III, born.

1469 Thomas de Vio Cajetan born.

Ferdinand and Isabella, of Spain, wed.

Oct 27:  Erasmus born (also possibly in 1466) in Rotterdam.  He was the illegitimate son of a priest, Gerardus, and the daughter of a physician.

1471 Sixtus IV, Pope from 1471-1484.
1473 Nicolas Copernicus born.
1475 Michelangelo born.

Erasmus' brother, Pieter, entered the monastery of Augustinian Canons at Sion, near Delft.

Giovanni de Medici, the future Leo X, born.
1476 Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, the future Paul IV, born.
1478 Giulio de Medici, the future Clement VII, born; he was a cousin of Leo X.

Erasmus attended the School of the Brethren of the Common Life at Deventer, to 1483.

William Blount, Baron of Mountjoy, perhaps born in this year.
1479 Gerard Cauvin, John Calvin's father, moved to Noyon, John's future birth city.  Gerard was an administrative assistant to Bishop Charles de Hangest.
1480 Balthasar Hubmaier born in this year or the next.

Carlstadt born (real name:  Andreas Bodenstein).  He was renamed after his birth place.

1483 Erasmus' father and mother died within a few months of each other; Erasmus and his brother, Pieter, were put into the care of guardians.  Erasmus attended school at Hertogenbosch.

Raphael born.

Nov 10:  Luther born in Eisleben to Hans and Margaretta Luder; since he was christened on the Feast Day of St. Martin, Hans named him "Martin."
1484 Innocent VIII, Pope from 1484-1492.

Ulrich Zwingli born.

The Luther family moved to Mansfeld.
1485 Erasmus' brother, Pieter, joined the monastery of Augustinian Canons at Sion, near Delft.

Dec 16:  Catherine of Aragon, future first wife of Henry VIII, born to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.  She was the youngest of one son and four daughters.

1486 Johann Eck born.

Frederick succeeds his father as elector.

1487 Erasmus entered the monastery of the Augustinian Canons Regular at Steyn, outside Gouda.

Giammaria Ciocchi del Monte, the future Julius III, born.

1488 Miles Coverdale born.

Tetzel ordained.

1489 The future Leo X was created a cardinal.

Guillaume Farel born.

Erasmus wrote the first draft of the "Antibarbarians." It was not published until 1520.

Mar:  An Embassy sent from Henry VII of England signed a treaty in Spain which  negotiated an alliance between England and Spain.  It was to be sealed with the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales and Catherine of Aragon.  Ferdinand and Isabella paid Henry VII 200,000 crowns and Henry VII promised to give Catherine one third of Arthur's lands when he died.  Arthur was two years old and Catherine was three.

1490 Thomas Munzer born.

Michael Sattler probably born in this year near Freiburg, Germany.

Tetzel became a Dominican friar in Leipzig.
1491 George Blaurock probably born in this year.

Ignatius Loyola born, or in 1495.

The future Henry III  born in Greenwich.
1492 Alexander IV, Pope from 1492-1503.  The future Julius II fled to France for protection.  (He and Alexander were enemies.)

Luther attended Latin school in Mansfeld.

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain banish Jews from their territories.

Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic and discovered the West Indies.

Apr 25:  Erasmus ordained by David of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht.
1493 Erasmus' "Against the Barbarians" published.

Maximilian I became Holy Roman Emperor, to 1519.

Erasmus left the monastery and became secretary to the bishop of Cambrai, Hendrik van Bergen.
1494 William Tyndale probably born in this year.
1495 Leonardo began painting "The Last Supper"; he finished in 1498.

Erasmus enrolled in theology at the University of Paris.

1496 Erasmus made a brief trip to Steyn and returned to Paris.

Michelangelo began sculpting "Pieta"; he finished in 1501.

Zwingli moved to Berne to attend school; until 1498.

Menno Simons born.

1497 Luther attended Latin school in Magdeburg.

John Cabot discovered Newfoundland.

Philipp Melanchthon born.

Gerard Cauvin married Jeanne Lefranc; they were John Calvin's parents.

Summer:  Arthur, Prince of Wales, and Catherine of Aragon were betrothed.

1498 Louis XII, King of France, began his reign, which lasted to 1515.

Luther attended the school of St. George in Eisenach, where he met the Schalbe family.

Feliz Manz probably born in this year in Zurich; he was the illegitimate son of a Roman Catholic priest.

Zwingli moved to Vienna to attend school; until 1502.

Columbus discovered Trinidad and South America.

Vasco da Gama of Portugal reached India.

1499 Erasmus traveled to England with Will Blount, Lord Mountjoy, staying for 6 months.  He met Thomas More, John Colet, and the future Henry VIII, who was 8 years old.

Gian Angelo Medici, the future Pius IV, born.

Jan 29:  Katharina Luther (nee von Bora) born in Lippendorf, Germany.

1500 Erasmus was back in Paris, until 1501 (he did spend six months in Orleans).  While there he published "Adages" (a collection of 818).

The future Charles V born.

Anne Boleyn may have been born in this year.

1501 Luther studied at Erfurt University.

Erasmus traveled to the Netherlands to live, until 1504.  In this year he also wrote the "Enchiridion" ("Handbook of a Christian Soldier") and his "On Moral Duties" published.

Nov 14:  Wedding of Arthur, Prince of Wales (Henry VIII's older brother), to Catherine of Aragon.  He was fifteen and she was sixteen.  But did they consummate the marriage?  A body servant of Arthur's, Sir Anthony Willoughby, noted years later that the following morning Arthur had said, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain."







Zwingli moved to Basel to study under Thomas Wyttenbach; until 1506.

Michelangelo began sculpting "David"; he finished in 1504.

Ugo Buoncompagni, the future Gregory XIII, born.

Columbus discovered Nicaragua.

Frederick founded the University of Wittenberg.

Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, married James IV of Scotland.

Mar 27:  Arthur, Prince of Wales, became seriously ill.

Apr 2:  Arthur, Prince of Wales, died.

Sep:  Luther earned his Bachelor of Arts degree.

Sep:  Erasmus moved to the university town of Leuven (Louvain).  He was greeted by the town council and the future Hadrian VI (1522-23), who was then professor of philosophy and dean of St. Peter's Church.

1503 The future Julius II moved back to Rome after the death of his enemy, Alexander VI.

Pius III, Pope for less than one year.

Julius II, Pope from 1503-1513.

Erasmus published the "Enchiridion."

Hubmaier began his studies at the University of Freiburg; one of his teachers was John Eck.

Jun 23:  A treaty for Henry and Catherine's wedding was signed.

1504 Erasmus traveled to Paris to live, until 1505.

Michele Ghislieri, the future Pius V, born.

Katharina Luther's (nee von Bora; Luther's future wife) mother died.  She was placed in a convent in Brehna.

Feb 23:  Future Henry VIII replaced his brother as "Prince of Wales."







Treaty of Blois in which France retained possession of Milan but gave control of Naples to Spain.  Spain now had control of southern Italy.

Carlstadt began teaching at Wittenberg.

Michelangelo began sculpting "Moses"; he finished in 1508.

Jan:  Luther earned his Master of Arts degree in preparation for his law degree.

May:  Luther began law studies.

Jun:  Luther encountered a thunderstorm, made vow for safety ("Help me, St. Anne:  I will become a monk"  [St. Anne was the mother of Mary, the mother of Jesus.], and came through without harm.  He wrote his father that the thunderstorm and vow were the will of God.

Sep:  Luther gave away his possessions and entered the monastery of the Augustinian monks at Erfurt.
1506 Erasmus traveled to Italy to live, until 1509.  He first went to Bologna, but had to leave when the papal forces started shelling the city.  He was back there to witness Julius' triumphal entry on 15 Nov 1506 into the newly-conquered city.

Columbus died.

Zwingli ordained as a priest.  He was pastor at Glarus from 1506-1516; while there he learned Greek and memorized Paul's epistles.

Jan:  Julius II granted Erasmus a dispensation to hold ecclesiastical benefices.

Apr 18:  Julius II laid the cornerstone of the Basilica of St. Peter.






Erasmus enlarge and republished the "Adages"; the number now totaled 3260.

Erasmus probably laid aside his monastic habit in this year because, he said, in Italy his clothing was taken for that of those who visited the victims of the plague, so that he had to endure disagreeable treatment.  He wore the dress of a secular priest.

Erasmus moved to Siena, from where he made two trips to Rome.  During this time period he met the future Pope Leo X, Giovanni de' Medici.

The first world map appeared in which the name "America" was used to indicate the newly discovered land; it was a product of Martin Waldseemueller.

Luther began his theological studies. 

May:  Luther is ordained a priest and officiated at his first Mass; the date was rescheduled for this time in order for Hans to be able to attend.

1508 The League of Cambrai of which Maximilian, Louis XII, and Ferdinand V joined forces against Venice.

Julius II pressured Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel; he worked on it from 1508-12.

Luther sent to lecture at the newly opened University at Wittenberg to temporarily replace a professor on leave; he lectured on moral philosophy.  Wittenberg had app. 2000 inhabitants.






Melanchthon began studies at Heidelberg.

Erasmus' "Enchiridion" is republished.

Katharina Luther (nee von Bora; Luther's future wife) entered the convent in Nimbschen near Grimma.

Jane Seymour, Henry VIII's third wife, born.

Mar:  Luther became a Biblical Baccalaureate.

Apr 21:  Henry VII died.  Henry VIII was seventeen years old.

Apr 24:  Henry VIII was proclaimed King in London.

Jun 11:  Henry weds Catherine of Aragon.  As opposed to his older brother's wedding to Catherine, which had been an elaborate one in 1501, this was a private wedding.

Jun 24:  Henry VIII was crowned King of England and Catherine of Aragon was crowned Queen of England.

Jul 10:  John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) was born to Gerard Cauvin and Jeanne Le Franc.

Aug:  Erasmus traveled to England to live, until 1514.  He lived in Thomas More's house from app. Aug 1509 to Apr 1511.

Oct:  Luther left Wittenberg and returned to Erfurt.

Nov 1:  Catherine's pregnancy was announced.

1510 The Holy League was formed by Julius II and Venice in order to drive Louis XII from Italy.

From this year until his death, Eck was professor of theology at Ingolstadt.

Luther sent to Nuremburg to discuss matters of the Augustinian order.

Jan 31:  Catherine of Aragon miscarried a daughter.  This was her first pregnancy.  Her swelling did not go down and her physician said she had another infant in her womb.  She continued as if she was pregnant.

Mar:  Catherine withdrew from public to finish her "pregnancy."  Soon after the swelling went down and it was decided she was not pregnant after all.

Early Spring:  Catherine became pregnant.

Nov:  Luther sent to Rome on behalf of his order; he walked; upon seeing Rome for the first time he fell to the ground and said, "How blessed are you, Holy Rome!"

1511 Erasmus lectured at Cambridge; he lived at Cambridge until 1514.  He made a short trip to Paris but returned to England.  Erasmus published "Praise of Folly".

Ferdinand V and Henry VIII joined the Holy League.

Luther returned from Rome and was sent to Wittenberg, staying at the Augustinian house.  (Frederick gave him this house later.)

Jan 1:  Henry VIII and Catherine's son was born; he was named Henry.

Jan 22:  Henry VIII and Catherine's son died.







Luther's Tower Experience.

Melanchthon began studies at Tubingen.

Russia and Poland at war until 1522.

The Swiss joined the Holy League and drove the French out of Milan.

Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's sixth and final wife, born.

William Tyndale received his B.A. at Magdalen Hall in Oxford University.

Sep 29:  Hubmaier received his doctorate in theology; already a priest, he became a university preacher and chaplain of the university church.

Oct 4:  Luther received his doctorate degree; Carlstadt presided over the event.

Oct 22:  Luther formally received into Wittenberg's Senate of the Faculty of Theology.

Oct 25:  Luther taught his first lesson on the Bible, starting at 7 in the morning.







Leo X (Giovanni de Medici), Pope from 1513-1521.

The Portuguese reached China.

Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean.

Luther taught on Psalms at the University of Wittenberg.

While pastoring at Glarus, Zwingli served as military chaplain to Swiss mercenaries who were in the papal service.

James IV of Scotland was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field.  James V was king of Scotland until 1542.

Henry VIII launched a campaign against France.

Erasmus wrote "Julius Excluded from Heaven" (or in 1514).

Sep:  Catherine of Aragon is again pregnant; she miscarried.

1514 Grebel begins studies at the University of Basel

John Knox born near Haddington.

Turkey and Persia go to war and Persia was defeated at the Battle of Chaldiran.

Mary, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XIII.

Erasmus moved to Basel and stayed until May 1516.

Oct:  Catherine of Aragon was again pregnant; she again miscarried.







Francis I was King of France to 1547.

The French defeated the Swiss at the Battle of Marignano and regained Milan.

Erasmus made a visit to the Netherlands and England.  While in Basel, Erasmus oversaw the Froben publication of the expanded "Adages".

Erasmus' "Enchiridion" is republished.  Although this is the third printing, within six years it goes through twenty-three editions.

Grebel attended the University of Vienna for the next 3 years; he received a scholarship from Emperor Maximillian I.

Luther was made vicar of his order; this placed him in charge of 11 Augustinian monasteries.  In Wittenberg he began lectures on Romans.

Katharina Luther (nee von Bora; Luther's future wife)  was ordained a nun.  She comes into contact with the writings of Luther for the first time.

Jeanne le Franc, John Calvin's mother, died.  John Calvin lived for a time with the Montmors, a prominent Noyon family.

Two years after becoming Pope, Leo X had spent all the money he had inherited from Julius II.

Zwingli again served as a military chaplain (see 1513).

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, became Lord Chancellor of England and a Cardinal.

Anne of Cleves, Henry VIII's fourth wife, born.

William Tyndale received his Master of Arts degree

Spring:  Catherine of Aragon perhaps was pregnant and miscarried.







Erasmus briefly visited England and then moved to southern Netherlands.  He became a counselor of the future Emperor Charles V.  His edition of Jerome appeared (in 9 volumes).

Luther began lectures at Wittenberg on Galatians.

France and Spain agreed at the Treaty of Noyon for the French to relinquish claims to Naples.

By this year Blaurock had become a priest in Trins (diocese of Chur); he relinquished it  in 1518.

The indulgence for the rebuilding of St. Peter's, Rome, was issued.  Tetzel was made sub commissary for the collection in the regions of Magdeburg and Halberstadt.

War between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt.

Charles I became King of Spain to 1556.

Zwingli left Glarus and traveled to Einsiedeln.

At some point Zwingli traveled to Basel and met with Erasmus.

Feb:  Mary  was born to Henry and Catherine of Aragon.

Feb 20:  Mary was christened.  Her canopy was borne by four knights:  one was Sir Thomas Parr, father of Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth wife; another was Sir Thomas Boleyn, father of Anne Boleyn, Henry's second wife.

Mar:  Erasmus' New Testament was published by Froben.  The Vulgate rendered Matthew 4:17 as "do penance, for the Kingdom of heaven is at hand," whereas Erasmus' version states "repent, for the Kingdom of heaven is at hand."

May:  Erasmus' "The Education of a Christian Prince" was published.







Erasmus visited Antwerp, then England, and then moved to Louvain; he was made a member of the theology faculty at the University there; he remained in Louvain until 1521.  He published "The Complaint of Peace".  He received permission from the pope to live in the world.

Luther began lectures at Wittenberg on Hebrews.

Tetzel traveled near Wittenberg and preached on indulgences.  Frederick did not allow him to preach on indulgences in his territory.  Tetzel's famous advertisement:  "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs!"

Luther's congregation often bought letters of indulgence in either Brandenberg or Anhalt; sometimes this was in lieu of going to confession.

The future Hadrian VI was made Inquisitor of Aragon and Nazarre and created Cardinal.

The Ottoman Turks captured Cairo, with the result that Egypt and Syria became part of the Ottoman Empire.

Apr:  Erasmus wrote to Leo X:  "If ever there was a golden age, then there is good hope that ours will be one."

Sep 8:  Grebel wrote to Zwingli.

Oct 31:  Luther nailed his "95 Theses" on the church door in Wittenberg.  [There is some doubt that this occurred.]

Nov:  The Pope issued a statement suggesting war on the Turks with 80,000 men.



























Erasmus had Froben republish "The Enchiridion".  Froben published an early version of Erasmus' "Colloquies" without Erasmus' knowledge.  The book sold well and Erasmus expanded it and continually had it republished.  By his death over 100 editions had been issued.

Eck published "12 Theses" to be used as the agenda at the Disputation at Leipzig; included were defenses of confession, the treasury of merits, purgatory, indulgences, and the authority of the pope in matters of faith.

Luther began lectures at Wittenberg on Psalms (until 1521). 

Melanchthon became professor of Greek at Wittenberg.

Jan:  Some of Luther's friends had the 95 Thesis translated into German and spread the copies around.  In this way many people became aware of Luther's ideas, and many agreed.

Mar:  Luther first wrote Erasmus, in which he expressed his admiration for Erasmus.

Mar:  Erasmus first mentioned Luther in a letter to Thomas More; he also included this:  "The Roman curia has abandoned any sense of shame.  What could be more shameless than these constant indulgences?"

Apr 25:  Beginning of Heidelberg Disputation.  This was held by Luther's Order, the Augustinian Order, in order to give him a chance to elaborate on his ideas;  Bucer wrote in a letter concerning Luther:  "What Erasmus insinuates he speaks openly and freely."

May:  Erasmus briefly visited Basel.

May 30:  Erasmus wrote a letter to Luther.

Jul:  Sylvester Prierias' "Dialogus" written against "The 95 Theses" appeared.

Aug:  Luther's "Resolutions Concerning the 95 Theses" appeared; Luther dedicated it to Leo X.

Aug:  Carlstadt published a set of theses whereby he maintained that only the Scriptures were authoritative in matters of faith.

Aug 7:  Luther called to Rome by Leo X; the location was changed to Augsburg in the presence of Cardinal Cajetan.

Aug 31:  Luther replied to Prierias.

Sep:  Ferderick ordered Luther to come to Augsburg; Luther later remembered thinking:  "Now you must die. . . . Oh, what a shame I have become to my parents!"; on the way Luther stopped in Weimar and Nuremberg.

Sep 30:  Grebel moved to Paris; his studies there lasted less than 3 months although he stayed until 1520.

Oct 7:  Luther arrived at Augsburg.

Oct 12:  Luther met with Cajetan 3 times but did not recant.

Oct 20:  Luther fled from Augsburg; Staupitz had fled just before this after secretly releasing Luther from his Augustinian vows of obedience in order to free Luther if he had to run for his life.

Oct 25:  Cajetan wrote Frederick a letter in which Cajetan reminded Frederick of his Christian responsibility.

Oct 31:  Luther returned to Wittenberg.  Frederick continued to protect Luther.

Nov 9:  A new papal decree on indulgences was drawn up, including a portion which stated the pope's right to issue indulgences.

Nov 10:  Catherine of Aragon gave birth to a girl; the infant died soon after.

Nov 28:  Luther appealed to a general council of the Church.

Dec 7:  Frederick refused to send Luther to Rome, telling Cajetan in a letter that by Luther appearing in Augsburg the request had been met; Luther did not find this out until 20 Dec.

Dec 11:  Zwingli elected People's Preacher at the Old Minster in Zurich; he remained in this position for the rest of his life.

Dec 13:  The new papal decree on indulgences is published.  Luther could no longer argue against indulgences without arguing against the pope's authority.












Tetzel died.

Leonardo da Vinci died.

John Colet died.

Munzer became confessor in Thuringia to a convent of nuns; he may have met Luther in this year.

Zwingli began preaching on the New Testament.

Henry's first son, Henry Fitzroy, was born to his first mistress, Elizabeth Blount.

Jan:  Emperor Maximilian died.

Jan 4:  Luther met with Frederick and Carl von Miltitz in Altenburg; Luther agreed to cease from further action until a German bishop was involved.

Apr:  Erasmus sent a letter to Frederick informing him of the discontent of the University of Louvain against Luther.  He asked for protection for Luther.

Jun 28:  Charles I of Spain unanimously elected Holy Roman Emperor and became Charles V; Leo fought against his election.

Jul 4:  Disputation at Leipzig; Carlstadt was the original target of Eck but Luther accompanied Carlstadt and argued as well;  Melanchthon was present.

Aug:  Luther received a copy of a letter from Eck to Frederick, compliments of Frederick, in which Eck called Luther an arch heretic.

Oct 5:  Luther again met with von Miltitz at Liebenwerda.

Nov:  The University of Louvain condemned several statements by Luther.  (Erasmus was living in Louvain at the time.)
























In late 1520 or early 1521 Grebel went back to Basel, but returned home within 10 weeks to study with Zwingli.

Erasmus' The Antibarbarians was published.

Munzer became a Protestant preacher at Zwickau.

Raphael died.

Erasmus had an audience with Henry VIII.

Frederick was visited by papal nuncio (ambassador) Aleander who urged Frederick to burn Luther's books and seize and transport him to Rome; Frederick sought Erasmus' advice and then decided not to follow Aleander's instructions.

Feb:  A commission was begun in Rome with the purpose of examining Luther's writings for heresy; Cajetan was one of the chairmen.

Jun:  Luther received a promise of 100 knights for protection.

Jun:  Eck traveled to Rome in order to join the commission examining Luther's writings.

Jun 11:  Luther's "On the Papacy at Rome" appeared.

Jun 15:  Leo X issues the bull "Exsurge Domine" which gave Luther 60 days to recant.

Jul:  Grebel moved to his boyhood town of Grueningen, east of Zurich.  He, Simon Stumpf, and George Binder begin study with Zwingli.

Aug:  Luther's "Address to the Christian Nobility" appeared; 4000 copies sold in 2 weeks; Luther dedicated a summary to the Emperor Charles V at the request of Frederick.

Sep:  Erasmus wrote a letter to Leo X concerning Luther.

Oct:  Luther's "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church" appeared.

Oct:  Erasmus traveled to Cologne where the Emperor Charles V, after his coronation at Aachen, would meet with the German princes.  Erasmus met with Frederick at Frederick's request.

Oct 8:  Luther's books are publicly burned at the University of Louvain, where Erasmus was living.

Oct 9:  A theology professor at the University of Louvain, the Carmelite Nicolaas Baechem  (Egmondanus), while preaching at St. Peter's Church, attacked Erasmus and linked Luther to Erasmus.

Oct 12:  Luther met a final time with von Miltitz, at Lichtenberg, near Wittenberg; Luther agreed to write the pope and give a defense of his actions while stating that he never attacked Leo himself and that the whole affair was Eck's fault.

Nov:  Luther's "On the Abolition of Private Masses: On Monastic Vows" appeared.

Nov:  Luther's "On the Freedom of a Christian" appeared; Luther's letter to the pope was attached to a copy of this book.

Nov:  Luther received another offer of protection from a knight.

Nov 28:  Charles wrote that Luther was to appear at the Diet of Worms.

Dec 10:  Luther publicly burned "Exsurge Domine" at Wittenberg.

Dec 17:  Aleander met with Charles and further explained the situation with Luther; Charles withdrew his invitation to Luther.





































Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), the Aztec capital.

Perhaps in this year Munzer left Zwickau for Bohemia in order to start a church but was driven out.

Loyola received a wound in the leg during a battle; during his recuperation he read the "Life of Christ" and various spiritual biographies.

France and Spain were at war over their differing claims to parts of Italy (until 1529).

Henry VIII was named "Defender of the Faith" by Leo X for his opposition to Luther.  Henry had written a book called "Defense of the Seven Sacraments."  To read an excerpt, go here:

Catherine Howard, Henry VIII's fifth wife, born.

Jan 5:  Frederick arrived in Worms.

Jan 18:  Charles received the formal bull of excommunication," Decet Romanum Pontificem," with instructions to read it at the Diet of Worms, and that any territory, city, or church that protected Luther would also be under the ban.

Jan 27:  Diet of Worms officially opened.

Feb:  Luther wrote Frederick that he was willing to come to Worms if he was granted safe passage to and returning.

Feb 19:  The German princes reported to Charles that condemning Luther with no hearing could lead to revolt; instead Luther should be called in to recant.

Mar 6:  Luther received an invitation to the Diet of Worms.

Early Apr:  Luther left for Worms, pausing at Erfurt, Gotha, and Eisenach to preach.

Apr 15:  The Faculty of Theology in Paris (Sorbonne) gave final approval to a condemnation of 104 of Luther's propositions; this condemnation is known as the "Determinatio."

Apr 16:  Luther arrived at Worms with trumpeters and the imperial herald leading the procession.

Apr 17:  Luther came to the Diet at 4 in the afternoon; present were Charles, the seven electors, Spanish troops, princes, bishops, etc.; in their midst was a table piled with books.  He was asked if he had written these books and if he would recant.  He replied that he had written those books plus more.  He wanted time to think about the second question.

Apr 18:  Luther was not called into the Diet until night.  He stated that he could not recant and then added "Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me! Amen." [There is some doubt as to whether or not he said these lines.]  Luther was subsequently given 21 days to travel to Wittenberg and then he would be under the ban; any town or individual helping him after 21 days would also be under the ban.  (This meant they would be outside the protection of the law.)

Apr 26:  Luther, some traveling companions, and an escort left Worms.

Apr 28:  Luther and the others reached Friedberg in Hesse; Luther returned his escort.

Apr 29:  Luther and his party reached Hersfeld, where he preached to the monks.

May:  Luther heard that one of his Augustinian friends had left the order to marry.

May 1:  Luther and his party reached Eisenach, where he preached to the people.

May 3:  Luther and his party reached Mohra, the village his father had lived in before he moved to Eisenach; there he preached in the open because Mohra did not have a church; Luther stayed with his uncle.

May 4:  Luther and 2 companions were surprised by 4 or 5 horsemen who kidnapped Luther.  The horsemen took Luther to Wartburg, Frederick's castle.  Luther assumed the name "Sir George" and grew a beard.

May 19:  Calvin, at age 11, was put in possession of a chaplaincy attached to the altar of La Gesine in the cathedral of Noyon.  He received the tonsure, the only sign of membership in a clerical order which Calvin ever attained in the Catholic Church.

Jun 1:  Luther's "On Confession: Whether the Pope Has the Power to Require It" appeared; Luther's response was "no."

Aug:  Luther received an essay written by Carlstadt which declared that the vow of celibacy was a sin; Luther announced "[they] will never force a wife on me!"

Aug:  Luther advised Melanchthon against Carlstadt's idea that not taking both the bread and wine was a sin.

Sep:  Melanchthon and some students participated in the Lord's Supper in which all partook of both the bread and wine.

Oct:  Erasmus moved to Basel, in a house provided by Froben; Erasmus remained until 1529.

Oct 20:  The professors at Wittenberg announced that the Mass as observed as a sacrifice was idolatry, while withholding the wine from the laity was wrong; Luther advised caution.

Nov:  By this time, Grebel had come under the tutelage of Zwingli.

Nov 11:  Luther wrote Spalatin a letter which said in part, "I have decided to attack monastic vows and to free the young people from that hell of celibacy, totally unclean and condemned as it is through its burning and pollutions."

Nov 12:  13 Augustinian monks left the order in Wittenberg.

Dec:  Pope Leo X died.  The newly elected Pope Adrian VI did not arrive in Rome until Aug 1522.

Dec 2:  Luther secretly rode to Wittenberg. arriving there the next day; he stayed about a week; while there his portrait was painted by Lucas Cranach in the form of a visiting knight.

Dec 15:  Luther's "An Admonition to All Christians to Guard Themselves against Insurrection" appeared.

Dec 25:  The Zwickau Prophets arrived at Wittenberg; they attract much attention and many followers; among their points of contention was that of infant baptism.

Dec 25:  Carlstadt led the first "Protestant" Communion Service in which he did not elevate the elements along with giving both elements to the communicants.  Later that night mobs interrupted the traditional services at other churches.
















Loyola, after giving up his sword and changing clothes with a beggar, devoted himself to prayer and mortification.

Erasmus replied to Zwingli's offer of Zurich citizenship:  "I wish to be a citizen of the world, to belong to everyone, or rather, to be alien to everyone."

Sometime during this year Manz came under the tutelage of Zwingli.

Erasmus moved from the Low countries to Basel.

One of Magellan's ships completed the first circumnavigation of the earth.

Erasmus' "On the Eating of Meat" appeared.

At the Battle of Biocca, Charles defeated the French and drove them out of Milan.

Jan: The German Augustinians met in Wittenberg and announced that all were free to leave if they desired.

Jan 19:  Carlstadt married.

Jan 25:  The Wittenberg city council, with the direction of Carlstadt, declared that all monies for charitable purposes would be placed in the public chest for the poor and that begging would no longer be allowed, even by those of mendicant orders.

Feb 6:  Grebel was married to a woman named Barbara by Heinrich Engelhart, parish priest of the Fraumunster.

Mar 6:  Christopher Froschauer served sausages instead of fish during Lent, in violation of Catholic tradition; Zwingli was present but did not eat.

Mar 6:  Luther arrived in Wittenberg to stay.

Mar 9:  Luther preached in Wittenberg for the first time since his "kidnapping."

Jul 7:  Grebel et al. were accused before the Zurich city council of taking over the pulpits in the Dominican monastery and denouncing their teaching.

Jul 12:  Zwingli interrupted a Franciscan monk, Francis Lambert, twice while he preached; the mayor of Zurich backed Zwingli.

Aug:  Adrian (or Hadrian) VI, Pope from 1522-1523.  














Farel in Basel, until 1524.  He attacked Erasmus so violently that Erasmus (perhaps) persuaded the magistrates to deny Farel residence in the city.

Munzer leaves for Allstedt; while there he organized the first church services in German.

Clement VII, Pope from 1523-1534.

The first of Luther's followers were executed:  two Augustinians were burned at the stake in Brussels.

Luther had become so popular that at one point he had to announce from the pulpit:  "For the sake of Christ I beg all who are down there committing my sermons to paper or memory not to print them until they have my own draft."

William Tyndale moved to London to seek help in translating the Bible into English.  The Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall turned him down.

Jan 29:  Zwingli successfully defended "67 Theses" against Johann Faber in front of an audience of 600.

Apr:  Katharina von Bora and a small group of nuns came to Luther to join his movement.

Jul 14:  Pierre Lizet  spoke out against the "evils" of Lutheranism at the faculty of theology meeting in Paris.

Aug 5:  Gerard Calvin sent his son, John, away from Noyon on this date or soon after in order to escape a plague affecting the city.  Many scholars believe John Calvin went to the University of Paris.  John was 14 years old. 

Aug 8:  Jean Valliere was burned alive in Paris for reading and commenting on Luther's writings.

Oct:  Disputation in Zurich.  After the Disputation, Grebel, Manz, et al. became increasingly dissatisfied with Zwingli.

Towards end:  Calvin moved to the College Montaigu (part of the University of Paris).  Erasmus had also studied there.

Dec 18:  Grebel wrote to his brother that he is dissatisfied with Zwingli and the pace of the Reformation in Zurich.

Dec 25:  The date Zwingli had planned to abolish the Mass, but he relented.











Blaurock arrived in Zurich; he was married.

On Luther's urging, Munzer is forced to leave Allstedt and traveled to Muhlhausen; he is forced to leave there and traveled to S. Germany; he returned to Muhlhausen.

After receiving no help with his English translation, Tyndale moved to Hamburg; he never returned to England.

Luther attacked Carlstadt, naming him a new Judas; Carlstadt renounced his professorship and fled.

France invaded Italy and recaptured Milan.

Peasants' War, to 1526.

The future Paul IV resigned his bishopric and co-founded the Theatine Order.

Mar:  Erasmus' new edition of the "Colloquies" appeared.  It included a conversation between a Lutheran and a Catholic.

Apr 2:  Zwingli publicly married Anna Meyer in the cathedral in Zurich.

May:  Erasmus received a letter from Luther.

Sep:  Erasmus' "The Free Will" appeared.

Sep 5:  Conrad Grebel wrote a letter to Thomas Munzer; Manz also signed it.

Nov 16:  In a letter to Matthaus Alber on this date, Zwingli explained his symbolic understanding of the elements of the Lord's Supper.

Dec 13:  Sometime between the 13th and the 28th, Manz penned a defense of believer's baptism for the Small and Large Councils in Zurich.






















Grebel wrote to Luther, Carlstadt, and Munzer.

Carlstadt allowed to return to Wittenberg provided he not lecture.

Disputation in Zurich.

Munzer is captured during the Peasants' War at the Battle of Frankenhausen and executed.

William Tyndale might have traveled to Wittenberg to work on his English translation of the NT.  It is not known if he met Luther. 

Jan 21:  A number of men gather at the home of Manz; Grebel baptized Blaurock.  This was the first Believer's Baptism of the Reformation period; the baptism was performed by pouring.

Jan 29:  Blaurock, in the village of Zollikon, refused to allow a priest to preach; he gave the sermon himself.

Jan 30:  Blaurock, Manz, and 24 people who had been baptized in Zollikon were arrested and placed in a monastery in Zurich; they were soon released.

Feb:  Manz and Blaurock traveled door-to-door explaining the new view of the Gospel along with baptizing and performing Communion.

Mar 13:  Luther and Katie (Katherine von Bora; see Apr 1523) were betrothed.

Mar 16:  Blaurock and 19 others were arrested; Blaurock and his wife were banished from the canton.

Apr:  Grebel returned to Zurich at the end of the month and went into hiding until June.

Apr:  Hubmaier, after being baptized, baptized over 300 people, using a milk pail.

Apr 9:  Grebel baptized a large number of people from St. Gall in the Sitter River.

May 5:  Frederick died; he is succeeded by Elector John.

May 28:  Zwingli's "On Baptism, Anabaptism, and Infant Baptism" is printed; it attacks the Anabaptist view of baptism.

May 29:  Eberli Bolt, the first Anabaptist known to have been martyred, was burned at the stake in Schwyz, Switzerland.

Jun:  Grebel moved to and worked on behalf of the Anabaptist cause at his boyhood home of Grueningen.

Jun 13:  Luther and Katie are married.

Jul:  Hubmaier responded to Zwingli's attack (see 1525 May 28) with "The Christian Baptism of Believers."

Oct 8:  Grebel and Blaurock were arrested and held in the Grueningen Castle.

Oct 31:  Manz was arrested and joined Grebel and Blaurock.

Nov 5:  Zwingli responded to Hubmaier's refutation (see 1525 Jul) with "A True, Thorough Reply to Dr. Baltasar's Little Book of Baptism."

Nov 18:  Grebel, Manz, and Blaurock were condemned because of the Anabaptist beliefs to a diet of bread and water with no visitors.

Dec:  Luther's "On the Bondage of the Will" appeared.
















At the Battle of Mohacs, the Turks defeated and killed Louis II of Bohemia and Hungary.

Luther's books are burned in England.

William Tyndale published the NT in English in Worms.  In October Bishop Tunstall in London condemned the book and ordered copies to be burned in public.

Ferdinand of Austria, the brother of Charles V, ascended to the Bohemian throne.

Hubmaier responded to Zwingli (see 1525 Nov 5) with "A Dialogue between . . . Hubmaier . . . and . . . Zwingli . . . on Infant Baptism."

The Sorbonne condemned Erasmus' "Colloquies."

Geneva won its independence from Savoy and allied itself with Bern and Fribourg.

Feb:  The first part of Erasmus' "Hyperaspistes" ("shield-bearer" or "defender") appeared, which attacked the first part of Luther's "The Bondage of the Will."

Mar:  Charles pronounced that all religious innovations would be halted and that the proceedings of the Diet of Worms would be honored.

Mar 5:  Second trial for Grebel.

Mar 7:  A sentence of life imprisonment was given to all the jailed Anabaptists.  A new law was passed giving a sentence of death to any Anabaptist who baptized another.

Apr:  Perhaps during this month Grebel died from the plague.

Apr 4:  Manz might have baptized a woman at Embrach.

Jun:  First Diet of Speyer began; the decision was reached that each prince would decide the ecclesiastical nature and order of his region; Charles' announcements of March 1526 were disregarded.

Jun:  Manz and Blaurock returned to Grueningen.

Jun 7:  Luther's first child, Han, was born; Hans became a lawyer and later a government official; Luther sometimes washed the diapers and, noting that his neighbors laughed at him, said, "Let them laugh.  God and the angels are smiling in Heaven."

Oct 12:  Manz was arrested again in St. Gall, but was soon released.

Dec:  Manz and Blaurock arrested; this was to be Manz' last imprisonment.

Dec 5:  Hubmaier flees to Zurich were he and his wife are arrested.  After being placed in jail, Hubmaier was tortured to the point of making the required recantation. (See 1526 Dec 29)

Dec 29:  Hubmaier, who was supposed to give a recantation before the Zurich city council, instead gave a defense; Zwingli silenced him and he returned to prison.

















Luther is sick several times.

Luther's first daughter, Elizabeth was born; she died at 8 months of age.

The Spanish and German armies sacked Rome and captured Pope Clement VII.

Froben died.

Probably early in the year, Hubmaier fled to Nikolsburg, Moravia; he resumed preaching and within a year 6000 were baptized.

Zwingli published a refutation of Grebel's tract on baptism (which is not extant) and the "Schleitheim Confession," entitled "Refutation of the Tricks of the [Ana]Baptists."

Sometime in this year or the next, Calvin's father withdrew him from school in Paris so he could study law at Orleans

Calvin's conversion, if it were gradual, may have begun in this year.

Jan 5:  George Blaurock was severely beaten with rods.  Manz was sentenced to die and was drowned at 3:00 in the afternoon.

Feb:  Sattler penned the "Schleitheim Confession."

Apr 22:  Luther became dizzy and fainted.

May:  Henry VIII moved on his plans to divorce Catherine by secretly gathering bishops and lawyers so they could sign a declaration that Henry and Catherine's marriage was invalid on the grounds that she was had been married to Henry's brother, Arthur.  N.b., Henry believed that Catherine had failed to give birth to a son because of the condemnation addressed in Leviticus 20:21:  "If a man marries his brother's wife, it is an act of impurity; he has dishonored his brother.  They will be childless."  Henry understood "childless" as "sonless."  Yet another Bible verse seemed to substantiate Henry's marriage, Deuteronomy 25:5:  "If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, his widow must not marry outside the family.  Her husband's brother shall take her and marry her and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her."  Nevertheless, Henry used the Leviticus passage as proof for the divorce.

May 20:  Sattler was executed by burning after being tortured.

May 28:  Sattler's wife was drowned in the Neckar.  Ferdinand, the Catholic king of Austria, had pronounced that the third baptism (drowning) was the best medicine against the Anabaptists.

Jun:  The Conference of Valladolid held in Spain to discuss Erasmus' works and thought; Michael Servetus was present as the secretary to the Emperor's confessor.

Jul 6:  Luther is so certain that he was getting ready to die that he called in Katie and several friends.

Aug:  The Plague came to Wittenberg; Luther and Katie stayed and cared for the sick; during this time Luther penned "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God," both the words and music.

Aug 28:  Hubmaier was arrested and held until Mar 1528.

Sep:  The second half of Erasmus' "Hyperaspistes" was published.

Sep 27:  Calvin given the ecclesiastical holding of the benefice of the pastorate of Saint-Martin de Martheville.  Soon afterward his father advised him to switch his concentration from theology to law.  Calvin agreed and moved to Orleans at the end of this year or the beginning of the next.







In Basel, the city magistrates removed images from the churches and replaced the Eucharist with the Lord's Supper.

Carlstadt again fled Wittenberg, eventually reaching Zurich.

Calvin completed the equivalent of undergraduate study under the Faculty of Arts.

Bern became Protestant.

Ignatius of Loyola began studies at the College Montaigu.  Calvin was also there, but no record exists of any encounter they might have had.

Jan:  Zwingli successfully defended 10 theses in Berne ("Berne Theses"); Berne joined the movement.

Mar 3:  Hubmaier taken to Vienna and tortured again on the rack; this time he did not recant.

Mar 10:  Hubmaier burned at the stake; the Catholic authorities burned all of his writings they could locate.

Mar 13:  Hubmaier's wife drowned in the Danube.

Nov 30:  Charles calls the Diet of Speyer after a request from the Pope.

















More was appointed Lord Chancellor of England.

Antoine Calvin, John Calvin's younger brother, became pastor at Tournerolle.

Luther's second daughter, Magdalena, was born; she died at age 13.

Calvin traveled to Bourges in order to learn from famed jurist Andrea Alciati.

Calvin's conversion probably occurred sometime between 1529-1531.  Calvin only said that it was a sudden experience.

In mid-1529 Blaurock became pastor of an Anabaptist Church in Austria.

At the Peace of Cambrai (between France and Spain) France renounced claims to Italy.

Wolsey was dismissed by Henry because he was not able to arrange the pope's approval of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

Erasmus' "On the Education of Children" appeared.  He wrote it while in Italy, from 1506-1509.

The Turks attempt unsuccessfully to lay siege to Vienna.

Feb:  Riots break out in Basel and some Protestants are installed as councilors, forcing out some Catholics.

Feb 21:  Second Diet of Speyer began; Melanchthon was present; controlled by Catholics; legislation passed to end toleration of Lutherans in Catholic areas; from this Diet dates the common use of the term "Protestants."

Apr:  Luther's "Concerning War against the Turks" is published.

Apr:  Erasmus moves from Basel, where Catholic worship had been abolished, to Freiburg in Breisgau, which was still Catholic.

Apr 21:  After having been expelled from Bern, et al. over a 2 1/2 year period, Blaurock traveled to Austria.

Apr 30:  Calvin relinquished his claim to the altar of La Gesine, giving it to his brother, Antoine.

May:  Luther's "Small Catechism" published; Luther referred to this work with a term Erasmus had earlier used for one of his own writings, "Enchiridion" or "Small Dagger."

Jun 21:  English trial for the validate of the  marriage of Henry and Catherine.  During the trial Catherine bowed at the King's feet and begged him to allow her to appeal to Rome.

Aug 14:  Blaurock was arrested by Innsbruck authorities; he was tortured.

Sep 6:  Blaurock was burned at the stake near Klausen.

Oct 1:  Colloquy of Marburg began; Luther & Melanchthon represented the Lutheran view while Zwingli, Bucer, and Oecolampadius represented the Swiss view; 14 of the 15 Marburg Articles were mutually agreed upon, but dissent occurred over the issue of communion.











Hofmann united with the Strasburg Anabaptists.

Diet of Augsburg.  Erasmus hoped to attend the Diet of Augsburg but was unable to because of poor health.

Charles established the Knights of St. John.

Tyndale published an English language Pentateuch.  He also wrote  letter opposing Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon.  Henry asked Charles V to have Tyndale arrested and returned to England; Charles V denied the request.

Erasmus' "On the War against the Turks" appeared this year or the next.

Apr 3:  Luther et al. left to meet Elector John and ultimately to travel to the Diet of Augsburg; Luther did not attend the Diet, instead staying at the Coburg for 5 months.

Apr 8:  Diet of Augsburg began.

May:  Luther complained of weakness, dizziness, and ringing in the ears.

Jun 5:  Luther learned that his father had died a week earlier.

Jun 25:  The Confession of Augsburg was presented to Charles.

Oct:  The Protestant princes agreed to resist the Catholics if they attacked.

Oct:  Calvin returned to Orleans.

Nov 19:  Charles pronounced opposition to the Confession of Augsburg.

Nov 29:  Wolsey died.

Dec:  The Protestant forces began meetings at Schmalkalden which would eventually led to an alliance against the Catholic regions and the emperor.











The Confession of Augsburg was published.

As early as 1531, William Barlow, an English student of the continental Anabaptist movement, referred to it as "the thyrd faccyon" of the Reformation.

By this time Luther was surrounded by people during all his waking hours and his idle talk around the meal table was recorded; it was later published as "Table Talk."

Luther's second son, Martin was born.  He studied theology but never became a pastor.  He died at the age of 33.

Calvin's father died.

Servetus' "On the Errors of the Trinity" appeared.  In this writing, Servetus claimed that the idea of the Trinity was a deception of the devil.  Servetus later published a retraction, calling these earlier views immature.

Feb 27:  The Schmalkaldic League was formed.

Mar:  Luther wrote, "I am seriously declining in strength, especially in the head.  It hinders me from writing, reading, or speaking much, and I am living like a sick man."

Mar:  Calvin returned to Paris.  He heard his father was sick and so left for Noyons.

May 26:  Calvin's father died.  He had been excommunicated two years earlier, but Calvin's older brother, Charles, arranged for their father to have a church burial.  Afterwards, Calvin returned to Paris.

Oct:  The Five Forest Cantons (Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden) attacked Zurich.

Oct 11:  Zwingli, as chaplain and carrying the banner, was killed in battle against the Five Forest Cantons at Cappel.  Luther, upon hearing of Zwingli's death, said, "I sorrow for Zwingli, because I have little hope for him."

















Turks invaded Hungary but was defeated.

More resigned over the issue of Henry VIII's divorce.

Lutheran pamphlets and placards began to circulate in Geneva.

Farel arrived and began preaching in Geneva.

Jan:  Luther's "On Infiltrating and Clandestine Preachers" is published; it warned the "true Christians" of those called Anabaptists.

Feb 4:  Elector John gave Luther the Augustinian Cloister he and his family had been living in in Wittenberg, plus the lands attached to it.

Apr:  Luther gave up public preaching for 8 weeks because of dizziness.

Apr:  Luther purchased a large garden with fruit trees which he gave to Katie; the garden was called "The Sow Market" and so Luther nicknamed his wife "Madame Sow Marketer."  Because of this, Katie had no monetary concerns once Luther died.

Apr 4:  Calvin's commentary on Seneca's "De Clementia" appeared; Calvin was 22 years old.  The work did not sell well and, subsequently, Calvin had to borrow money from friends.

May:  Calvin is in Orleans from this month through to the next summer.

May:  Charles needed help to fight the Turks and so conditions for religious peace in northern Europe were sought at a meeting in Schweinfurt.

Jul:  An open sore developed on Luther's leg, which bothered him the rest of his life (both the sore and the treatment of the doctor).

Jul 23:  Protestant rulers agree to give aid for the purpose of defending against the Turks in return for religious toleration.

Aug:  Cranmer became Archbishop of Canterbury.

Aug:  In return for financial help against the Turks, Charles V gave the princes absolute religious freedom until a church council could address the issue and all lawsuits against the princes in the imperial court were dismissed.

Aug 18:  Luther preached the funeral sermon at Elector John's funeral; Elector John's successor was a 29-year old John Frederick who had been raised as follower of Luther.

Oct:  As early as this date, Farel, living in Bern, began trying to introduce the Reformation into Geneva.

Nov 14:  Henry VIII, married Anne Boleyn, his second wife, in private.

Dec:  Anne Boleyn was pregnant.












Ivan IV, also known as the Terrible, became ruler of Russia at the age of three.  He reigned until 1584.

Luther responded to the idea of Erasmus' "Colloquies" being taught at the school at Wittenberg by saying, "On my deathbed I shall forbid my children to read the "Colloquies" of Erasmus."  The "Colloquies" were accepted anyway.

Pizarro conquered Peru by capturing the Inca capital, Cuzco.

Erasmus' "On Repairing the Unity of the Church" was published.

Calvin left Orleans for his hometown of Noyon.

Jan van Leyden and other Anabaptists took over Munster, until 1535.

Feb 26:  This day was Ash Wednesday.  During Lent in this year, pro-Lutheran Gerard Roussel preached in Paris.

Mar 29:  Six professors of the Faculty of Theology in Paris were instructed to preach against Lutherans (probably in reaction to the favorable reaction to Roussel, Feb 26 above.)

Apr 10:  Garin Muete first perfomed holy communion guided by Farel's instructions in Geneva.  The Catholic city of Fribourg demanded Farel be expelled.  The reforming city of Berne sent Viret to Geneva in order to aid Farel.

May 23:  Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine of Aragon invalid.

May 28:  Henry married Anne Boleyn publicly.

Jun 1:  Anne Boleyn crowned Queen of England.

Jul 11:  Clement VII excommunicated Henry VIII.

Sep 7:  Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, born.

Nov 1:  Nicolas Cop gave a speech as Rector of the University which was seen as too reforming.  He and Calvin were eyed as potential problems.

Nov:  Calvin left Paris for Angouleme.  Within hours of Calvin's departure, police searched his rooms and took all the writings he left; these have never been recovered.  At the end of this year or the beginning of the next, Calvin traveled to Saintonge (in the South of France).  He used the pseudonym Charles d'Espeville.

Dec 10:  The King of France wrote asking strict suppression of "the Lutheran sect."  Many of Lutherans were thrown in prison.  Nicholas Cop fled to Basel.



















Luther's third daughter, Margaretha, was born; she eventually married a nobleman.

William Blount, Baron of Mountjoy, died.

Luther's complete German Bible appeared.

Carlstadt became professor at Basle

Munster incident

Calvin probably wrote "Psychopannychia" during this year in Orleans.

Sometime during this year, Calvin and Servetus agreed to meet; Servetus failed to show.

Farel became a minister in Geneva.

The Act of Supremacy wass passed; everyone must swear allegiance to Henry as head of the Church of England.

Loyola laid the foundations of the Society of Jesus when he and 6 others vowed poverty, chastity, and a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Jan 27:  The Geneva council began a disputation between a Catholic theologian and the reforming party exemplified by Farel.  While it did not go on as scheduled and soon was abandoned, it was seen as a victory for the reformers.

Mar 1:  Reforming preachers occupied a church in Geneva.

Apr:  Calvin traveled to Nerac to visit Lefevre (who would die in 1536).  While there, Calvin also visited Roussel at the abbey at Clairac.

May 4:  Calvin resigned the chaplaincy of La Gesine (in effect, he resigned his benefices); this may have been a theological as well as monetary break from the Catholic Church.  It was customary at the age of 25 to either enter into service to the church in some capacity or resign the benefices.  Also during this month Calvin returned briefly to Paris.

May 15:  The Catholic city of Fribourg withdrew its alliance with Geneva.

Summer:  Calvin preached in a cave near the city of Saint-Benoit.  In a letter dated Feb 20, 1555 to the citizens of Poitiers, Calvin reminded them of the teaching "which you received in part from us." 

Oct 13:  Paul III became Pope, to 1549.  He would have 3 sons and a daughter.

Oct 18:  "Affair of the Placards".  Placards denouncing the Eucharist were placed in prominent places throughout France, including one on the king's bedchamber at Amboise.  The Protestant movement in France became more dangerous.

Oct:  Calvin left France and, traveling by way of Strasbourg, arrived in Basle in Jan 1535.  Basle had become a safe haven for "evangelicals." 

















More and Fisher are beheaded because they did not support the king's actions.

Erasmus was secretly offered the cardinal's hat by Paul III but declined.

Servetus moved to Lyons were he worked as a printer's reader.

Spain and France are at war until 1537.

Tyndale was arrested.

Spanish adventurers explored Chile.

Death of Sforza and Spain took control over Milan.

Coverdale published the first complete English-language Bible while on the Continent; it was dedicated to the king.

Jan:  Calvin arrived in Basle.  He adopted the pseudonym "Martinus Lucianus."

Feb 16:  Calvin's friend and fellow Protestant, Etienne de la Forge, was burned alive in France.

May:  Erasmus arrived in Basel.  Although Calvin was also in Basel, no record of a meeting exists.

Jun:  King Francis invited Melanchthon to visit the French court.

Jun 4:  A French translation of the Bible by Olivetanus was published.  He was the cousin of John Calvin.  Calvin wrote the foreword in Latin.

Jul 16:  The Edict of Coucy allowed religious fugitives to return to France, provided they renounce their Protestant beliefs within six months.  Calvin would take advantage of this opportunity to go to France and arrange his affairs the next year.

Aug 10:  The Council of Two Hundred in Geneva abolished the Catholic mass.

Aug 22:  The bishop of Geneva excommunicated the entire population of Geneva.  All Catholic clergy and religious soon left the city.  The City Council assumed control of Church lands. 

Aug 23:  By this date, the "Institutes" was complete (in its first form).  Calvin began the work with a letter addressed to French King Francis I, using this date.  After correcting the proofs, Calvin left for Ferrara, Italy. 

Nov 26:  The Geneva City Council opened a public mint.  The slogan on the new coins:  "post tenebras lux," "after the shadows, light."

























Servetus moved to Paris.  In previous years he had become a physician; he continued this practice.  In one of his writings from his time in Paris is a passage which suggests that blood circulates through the body.

"The Dissolution of the Smaller Monasteries" was passed.  Cromwell directed the suppression of monasteries.

The English "Ten Articles" were adopted.

Jan 7:  Catherine of Aragon died.

Jan 29:  Catherine of Aragon buried.  In a strange turn of events, Anne Boleyn miscarried on the same day.

Feb:  Calvin met Heinrich Bullinger in Basel.

Feb:  Calvin, using his old pseudonym of Charles d'Espeville, traveled to Italy.  He stayed several weeks in Ferrara.  

Mar:  Calvin's first edition of "Institutes of the Christian Religion" was published by Basel printers Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius.  It was printed in Latin. 

Spring:  Calvin returned to Basel.  Once there, he took advantage of a amnesty in France (given to allow heretics to renounce their incorrect beliefs) to travel to Paris.  Once he left, his brother Antoine and sister Marie accompanied him.  (His siblings would eventually settled in Geneva with him.) 

May 19:  The Little Council of Geneva, with the guidance of Farel, asked the people if they wanted "to live according to the new reformation of the faith."

May 19:  Anne Boleyn beheaded.  Henry VIII would then marry Jane Seymour.

May 25:  The citizens of Geneva voted to "live henceforth according to the law of the gospel and the word of God, and to abolish all papal abuses."

Jul 12:  Erasmus died in Basel. 

Jul 15:  Calvin left France for Strasbourg.  The most direct route would bring Calvin close to troops fighting between Francis I and the Emperor, so he decided to use a more circuitous route through Geneva.  His brother Antoine and sister Marie accompanied him.  (His siblings eventually settled in Geneva with him.) 

Aug:  Calvin spent the night in Geneva.  He intended to stay only one night, but he was recognized by an old friend, De Tillet, who informed Feral; a meeting with Farel changed his plans.  Their meeting is here given in its entirety.  "Nobody there knew that I was its [the Institutes] author.  Here, as everywhere, I made no mention of the fact, and intended to continue doing the same until finally Guillaume Farel kept me at Geneva, not as much by advice and argument, as by a dreadful curse, as if God had laid his hand upon me from heaven to stop me.  I had intended to go on to Strasbourg' the most direct road, however, was closed by the wars.  I decided to pass through Geneva briefly, without spending more than one night in the town.  A little while previously, popery had been driven out by the good many I have mentioned, and by Pierre Viret.  Things, however, were still far from settled, and there were divisions and serious and dangerous factions among the inhabitants of the town.  Then someone, who has now wickedly rebelled and returned to the papists, discovered me and made it known to others.  Upon this Farel (who burned with a marvelous zeal to advance the gospel) went out of his way to keep me.  And after having heard that I had several private studies for which I wished to keep myself free, and finding that he got nowhere with his requests, he gave vent to an imprecation, that it might please God to curse my leisure and the peace for study that I was looking for, if I went away and refused to give them support and help in a situation of such great need.  These words so shocked and moved me, that I gave up the journey I had intended to make."  Calvin continued to Basel for a short stay and then returned to Geneva.

Aug:  Elector John issued a decree requiring all Jews to leave his territory plus denying passage through his land by any Jew.

Sep 5:  Calvin began as a lecturer at Saint Pierre in Geneva; his text:  Pauline epistles.  Soon afterward he began duties as a minister.

Oct 1:  The Lausanne Disputation began.  It was held in Lausanne by the Bern government who wished to convince its occupants to embrace the reformation movement.  Farel, Viret, and Calvin went on behalf of the Bernese Council and debated catholic theologians.

Oct 5:  At the Lausanne Disputation, Farel and Viret were unconvincing.  Calvin took over on this date and proceeded to wither the catholic opponents with his knowledge of the church fathers. 

Oct 6:  Tyndale is strangled and burned.







Matthew's Bible was published; it was the first English Bible to have the king's approval.

Loyola and 6 others went to Rome.

Eck published a German-dialect version of the Bible for Catholic use.

Schmalkaldic Articles; Melanchthon was one of the signers.

John Calvin's older brother, Charles, died.  He had been accused of heresy and was excommunicated.

Calvin wrote "Instruction in the Faith," his first Catechism.

Jan:  Luther almost died of a kidney stone.

Jan:  Calvin and Farel drew up plans for church organization; it did not contain provision for a Consistory.  Calvin apparently developed this idea during his hiatus from Geneva, for it appeared in 1542.

Early:  Four new syndics were elected in Geneva, all pro-Farel and Calvin.

Oct 12:  The future Edward VI was born to Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.

Oct 24:  Jane Seymour, Henry VIII's third wife, died.  Note:  After Henry VIII died, he was placed beside her in St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.







Truce of Nice between Spain and France.

The "Injunction of 1538" decreed that the Great Bible be placed in every church in England.

1538-1540:  The first complete edition of Erasmus' work is published.

Feb 3:  Four new syndics were elected in Geneva, all anti-Farel and Calvin.

Mar:  In Geneva, all ministers were denied involvement in political matters.  In addition, the City Council decided to follow the religious pattern of Bern instead of Farel and Calvin.

Mar:  Luther's "Letter against the Sabbatarians" appeared.

Apr 21:  Easter Day.  Sometime soon after this date Farel and Calvin were expelled from Geneva.  Calvin subsequently went to Strasbourg until September 1541.

May:  Luther recommended that the Protestant princes yield to Charles V's request for aid in defeating the Turks.

1539 Truce of Frankfurt between Charles V and the Protestant princes.

Calvin enlarged the "Institutes."

"The Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries" was passed.

May 19:  In a letter to Farel, and discussing a possible future wife for himself, Calvin wrote:  "Always keep in mind what I seek to find in her; for I am none of these insane levers who embrace also the vices of those they are in love with, where they are smitten at first sight with a fine figure.  This only is the beauty which allures me, if she is chaste, if not too nice or fastidious, if economical, if patient, if there is hope that she will not be uninterested bout my health."

Jun:  The English "Six Articles" (against Lutheranism) were adopted.

Jul:  Luther counseled Duke Henry to abolish the Mass in his territories.

Oct:  Calvin's "Reply to Sadoleto" was published. 







Sometime after this year Coverdale returned to England.

Cromwell was beheaded after being charged with treason.

Paul III officially recognized the Society of Jesus.

Melanchthon became ill while at Hagenau; Luther went to his side and was gone about 6 weeks.

Calvin's first major commentary, on Romans was published.

Calvin's second edition of the "Institutes" was published; it had increased from six chapters in 1536 to nineteen chapters.

Servetus moved to Vienne in Dauphiny, France, where one of his friends was an archbishop.  In later years he tried to draw Calvin into debates, but Calvin refused.  Finally he sent Calvin a copy of the "Institutes" with insulting comments in the margins.

Jan 6:  Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves married; she was his fourth wife.  The marriage was never consummated because Henry was repulsed by her.

Jun:  Emperor Charles V brought together opposing Christian parties in an attempt to mediate peace between them.  The first was held at Hagenau in this month.  Calvin attended; he was living in Strasburg at that time.

Jul:  Calvin became a Strasburg citizen. 

Jul 10-11:  Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves divorced.  She agreed to change her status to Henry's "sister" in return for 4,000 pounds a year plus two residences.

Jul 28:  Henry VIII married Catherine Howard.

Aug:  Calvin married Idelette de Bure. 

Oct:  Calvin received communication from Geneva inviting him back.

Nov:  Emperor Charles V brought together opposing Christian parties in an attempt to mediate peace between them.  The second was held in Worms in this month.  Calvin attended; he was living in Strasburg at that time.







John Knox brought the Reformation to Scotland.

De Soto discovered the Mississippi River.

The Protestant princes agreed to levy a special tax for the purpose of defeating the Turks; Elector John paid Luther's tax himself.

Turks conquered Hungary.

Carlstadt died.

A French translation of Calvin's  "Institutes" was published.

Calvin's "Short Treatise of the Lord's Supper" was published.

Apr 5:  Emperor Charles V brought together opposing Christian parties in an attempt to mediate peace between them.  The third and final meeting was held in Ratisbon in this month.  Calvin attended; he was living in Strasburg at that time.

Aug:  Farel desired for Calvin's return to Geneva.  Calvin finally agreed, and in a letter to Farel dated this month, wrote:  "As to my intended course of proceeding, this is my present feeling; had I the choice at my own disposal, nothing would be less agreeable to me than to follow your advice [and return to Geneva].  But when I remember that I am not my own, I offer up my heart, a slain victim for a sacrifice to the Lord . . . I submit my will and affections subdued and held fast to the obedience of God."

Sep:  Luther's "An Admonition to Pray against the Turks" appeared.

Sep 13:  Calvin arrived in Geneva.  He was given the status of "Habitant."  He was not a citizen and could not vote or hold public office.  His status was unchanged until 1559 when, on December 25, he was made "bourgeois,"  although not a full citizen.  Therefore, Calvin was never a full citizen in the town so closely associated with his name. 

Late:  Calvin wrote the "Ecclesiastical Ordinances." In it, he established the Consistory.

Dec:  Elector John gave Luther 1000 gulden:  5% was paid to Luther annually and the remainder was to be given to his heirs at his death.







Luther's daughter, Magdalena, died.

The Consistory in Geneva was instituted.  It initially had nine members, but had grown to nineteen by 1564. 

Calvin wrote "Form of Ecclesiastical Prayers and Hymns."

At the Battle of Solway Moss, James V, King of Scotland, was killed.

Mary Stuart became Queen of Scotland until 1567.

Paul III reestablished the Inquisition; the future Paul IV was given the task of reorganizing it.

Feb 13:  Catherine Howard, Henry VIII's fifth wife, beheaded.

Mar:  Luther wrote Elector John:  "If I were not too old and weak, I would prefer personally to be part of the army" against the Turks.

Jul 1:  The Parliament in Paris declared that all works of heresy should be turned over in three days, including Calvin's "Institutes." 







Eck died.

A detailed description of Copernicus' theory was published; it was placed on the Index in 1616 and removed in 1757.

Copernicus died.

Luther's "Against the Jews and Their Lies" appeared.

Calvin's third Latin edition of "Institutes" is published.  It is expanded to twenty-one chapters.

Jul 12:  Henry VIII and Catherine Parr married.

1544 Henry VIII and Charles V invaded France.

Charles V was able to break up the Schmalkaldic League.







Luther's "Against the Papacy at Rome, Founded by the Devil" appeared.

A second French edition of Calvin's "Institutes" was published. 

Calvin wrote another Catechism.  See also 1537.

Upon hearing that Waldensians were being persecuted in some Swiss cantons, Calvin traveled there and organized relief and shelter for the refugees. 

Oct:  On the way to Wittenberg from his travels, Luther stopped by Eisleben, where he had been born, in order to investigate a small regional argument which involved his extended family.

Nov:  Back in Wittenberg, Luther ended his university teaching career by finishing Genesis; he stated, "Here is the beloved book of Genesis.  May God give grace that others after me do better.  I can do no more, for I am too weak."

Dec 13:  The Council of Trent officially began.

Dec 22:  Luther, Melanchthon, et al. left for Mansfeld in order to help negotiate the family problem in his birth region; they had to turn back because Melanchthon became ill.

1546 Jan 23:  Luther, with his sons, left for Eisleben; they had to pause at Halle because the river flooded.  Once they crossed Luther's sons went back to Wittenberg.

Feb 18:  Luther died; in his pocket was found a piece of paper which read, in part, "This is true, we are all beggers."

Feb 20:  Luther's body began the trip to Wittenberg.

Feb 22:  Luther's body was brought into Wittenberg in the morning.  Rigor mortis had set in and his right hand had curled into the position of holding a pen while his left hand was flat out as if holding down a book.  He was buried in the church in Wittenberg.

1547 A note was found attached to Calvin's pulpit which read:  "You and yours shall gain little by your measures; if you do not take yourself away, no one will save you from destruction, you shall curse the hour when you forsook your monkhood.  Warning should have been given before that the devil and his legions were come here to ruin everything.  But though we have been patient for a time, revenge will be had at last.  Defend yourself or you will share the fate of Verle of Freiburg.  We do not wish to have so many masters here.  Mark well what I say."  The author was later discovered to be Jacques Gruet.  A letter to the king of France was discovered in his house and he was executed because of treason [not because of his threat to Calvin].  Yet this incident is indicative of the oppostion Calvin faced in Geneva.

Henry II is King of France until 1559.

The Chambre Ardente was established in France.  Its purpose was to hunt down, torture, and kill Protestants. 

Jan 28:  Henry VIII died and Edward VI became King of England until 1553; the Duke of Somerset acted as Protector.  Calvin sent an envoy, along with a copy of his new commentary to Isaiah, which he had dedicated to the new king. 

Apr:  Charles V was victorious over the Schmalkalden League at the Battle of Muhlberg.  He made a trip to the Castle Church in Wittenberg; some around him encouraged him to have Luther's body dug up, burned, and the ashes scattered but Charles replied that he did not make war against dead men.  Katie, Luther's wife, was forced to flee and all her property was destroyed.

1548 Charles V annexed the Netherlands.

Sep 5:  Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's last wife, died after giving birth to a girl, Mary.  The father was Catherine's second husband (after Henry), an uncle of the new king, Edward VI.

1549 The "First Prayer Book of Edward VI" is printed.

John Knox spent five years in England from 1549-1554 during which time he preached sermons in London and had contact with Archbishop Cranmer.

Xavier is in Japan until 1551.

Mar:  Calvin's wife, Idelette, died, leaving him with two children from her first marriage.  The Calvin family doctor, Benedict Textor, had accepted no payment for any of Idelette's illnesses; Calvin thanked him by dedicating his commentary on Second Thessalonians to him.

1550 Julius III, Pope from 1550-1555

Calvin's fifth Latin edition of the "Institutes" is published.  It divided the twenty-one chapters into paragraphs.

1551 The Second Period of the Council of Trent lasted from 1551-1552

Robert Stephanus published a New Testament in Geneva in which he arranged the chapters into verses; this arrangement is used in all Bibles today.

Calvin's third French edition of the "Institutes" is published.

1552 The "Second Prayer Book of Edward VI" was printed (Second BCP).

Katie Luther returned to Wittenberg but was forced to flee due to an outbreak of the plague.

Dec 20:  Katie Luther was riding in a wagon which tipped over, throwing her into a canal; she died.







Servetus published a "Restitutio" in contradistinction against Calvin's "Intistutes" in Vienne in Dauphiny, France.

Sometime after this date, Coverdale left England.

Edward VI died.  Mary became Queen of England.  Calvin sent an envoy along with a copy of a new edition of his commentary to Isaiah, which he dedicated to the new queen.  In the dedication, Calvin wrote that he hoped she would "restore the doctrine of true godliness . . . to its former privileges," meaning before the reign of Mary.  Unfortunately for Calvin, Knox had just published "First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women" against female rulers.  To make matters worse for Calvin, this work was published in Geneva, although Calvin was not aware of it.  Therefore, Calvin's volume did not reach the queen.

Mary's "Act of Repeal" restored Catholic services in lieu of the BCP.

Julius III sent Cardinal Pole to England after the death of Edward VI.

May:  Five French students, after being trained in Lausanne in Protestant doctrines and returning to France to preach, were executed.  Prior to their execution, they wrote a letter to Calvin and the pastors of Geneva; it reads in part:  "Very dear brothers in our Lord Jesus Christ, since you have been informed of our captivity and of the fury which drives our enemies to persecute and afflict us, we felt it would be good to let you know of the liberty of our spirit and of the wonderful assistance and consolation which our good Father and Savior gives us in these dark prison cells, so that you may participate not only in our consolation . . . For this reason we want you to know that although our body is confined here between four walls, yet our spirit has never been so free and so comforted."

Jul 24:  Calvin's position in Geneva had deteriorated to the point where he submitted his resignation; it was refused.

Aug 12:  Servetus arrived in Geneva.

Aug 13:  Servetus was arrested.

Oct 25:  Servetus was condemned to death.  An entry from the registry of the Venerable Company of Pastors in Geneva reads:  "Their Lordships, having received the opinion of the churches of Basle, Berne, Zurich and Schaffhausen upon the Servetus affair, condemned the said Servetus to be led to Champey and there to be burned alive."  Geneva had requested opinions from other cities, and so they are listed in the official document.  Calvin tried to change the sentence to beheading, but was unsuccessful.

Oct 27:  Servetus was burned. His final cry at the stake was "Jesus the Son of the Eternal God."   N.b., in 1903 a monument was erected at the site of the execution; it reads:  Respectful and grateful sons of Calvin, our great Reformer, but condemning an error which belonged to his century and firm believers in freedom of conscience according tot he true principles of the Reformation and the Gospel, we have raised this expiatory monument."

1554 Nov 25:  In a letter to Bullinger after Luther had attacked Bullinger, Calvin wrote, "I do earnestly desire that you would consider how eminent a man Luther is, and the excellent endowments wherewith he is gifted, with what strength of mind and resolute constancy, with how great skill . . . he has hitherto devoted his whole energy to overthow the reign of Antichrist, and at the same time to diffuse far and near the doctrine of salvation.  Often have I been wont to declare, that even though he were to call me a devil, I should still not the less hold him in such honor that I must acknowledge him to be an illustrious servant of God. . . . Flatterers have done him much mischief since he is naturally too prone to be over-indulgent to himself.  It is our part, however, so to reprove whatseover bad qualities may beset him as that we may make some allowance for him at the same time. . . . Consider . .. that you have to do with a most distinguished servant of Christ, to whom we are all of us largely indebted."
1555 French Protestant congregations were established after the Geneva pattern, often with pastors sent from Geneva.  One congregation was located in Paris.

Marcellus II, Pope for less than one year.

Paul IV, pope until 1559.

1556 Aug:  Two pastors were sent from Geneva to accompany a French Protestant group to South America where they could worship in peace and evangelize South American Indians.  The Governor of the colony, though, killed some and forced the others to return home.

Aug 20:  From the Genevan Register of the Council on this date:  "M Calvin being entreated to repair to Frankfort, to try to appease great trouble which as arisen in the Church in the said city, demands leave of absence from the council in order to go there, which is granted to him with a request that he will return as soon as possible."

Loyola died.

1557 The Index was created under the pontificate of Pius IV and under the auspices of the Congregation of the Inquisition.

Jul 16:  Anne of Cleves, Henry VIII's fourth wife, died.

1558 Charles V died.

Ferdinand I became Holy Roman Emperor, to 1564.

May:  [An example of Calvin's correspondence.]  In a letter to a Protestant awaiting execution in Lyons, Calvin wrote:  "My dear and beloved brother, if, free from fear and anxiety, I should animate you and your brethren in office to endure the strife which awaits you, my language would be rightly be considered cold, and even disagreeable.  Distressed, however, as I am on account of your danger, and trembling as I do while exhorting you to perseverance and trust, this letter, which is a living image of my heart, and shows all its inward emotions, will speak to you no less clearly than I could myself were I present, and a partaker in your troubles.  And certainly, if the worst should happen, it would be my wish to be united with you in death rather than to survive you."

Knox is again in Geneva and consults with Calvin on church matters in Scotland.

Jan:  A committee was established in Geneva for the formation of an Academy.  Theodore Beza, who would later take on Calvin's mantel of leadership upon Calvin's death, was the first Rector.

Nov 17:  Mary I, Queen of England, died.  Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, became Queen, until 1603.

1559 Coverdale returned to England.

All of Erasmus' works are placed on the Index of Forbidden Books.

Francois II became King of France, to 1560; he was 16 years old.

By this year, seventy-two Reforming congregations had been established in France.  Eighty-eight men were sent out from Geneva between 1555 and 1562.  Also in this year occurred a General Synod of the Reformed Church in Paris:  results of this Synod included a confession of faith and good of discipline (both influenced by Calvin's thought).

Pope Paul IV died.

Pius IV, Pope from 1559-1565

Calvin's fifth and final edition of the "Institutes" was published.  He reordered the 1551 edition into four books with eighty chapters.

Jun 5:  Beza gave the inaugural address at the the new Geneva Academy.

1560 Melanchthon died; he was buried in the Castle Church in Wittenberg. (Luther was also buried there.)

Charles IX became King of France, until 1574; he was 10 years old.

Oct 10:  Jacobus Arminius was born at Oudewater in Rotterdam.

1561 Calvin's "Institutes" was published in English for the first time.  It would be eleven more years before it was published in German. 
1562 The Third Period of the Council of Trent lasted from 1562-3.

Mar 1:  Soldiers under the Duke of Guise (French) massacred a Protestant congregation at Vassey. 







Pius IV allowed the laity to partake of the chalice, a move intended to counter the spread of Protestantism; later popes abolished this move.

William Shakespeare born.

Some of Erasmus' works were allowed to be read in abbreviated form, while others, such as the "Praise of Folly" and "Colloquies" continued to be forbidden.

Michelangelo died.

Galileo Galilei born.

Maximilian II became Holy Roman Emperor, to 1576.

Jan 26:  The decrees of the Council of Trent were confirmed.

Feb 6:  Calvin preaches for the last time from the pulpit of Saint-Pierre.

Apr:  Calvin found breathing difficult.

Apr 28:  Calvin spoke for the last time to the Genevan ministers. 

May 27:  Calvin died in Geneva at 8 PM; he was buried in an unmarked grave per his instructions.  In the minutes from the Genevan Council after his death is the following record:  "As for the late M. Calvin . . . God had implanted so many graces in him, and had invested him with such authority towards the people, thereby enabling each one of us the better to discharge the duties of his ministry, that, had we been bound to make a choice every year, we could not have considered any other member of the company."

1566 Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572.

Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a "Doctor of the Church."

1568 Coverdale died.
1570 Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I.
1571 Pius V created a "Congregation of the Index" to revise the Index as needed; the Index was abolished in 1966.
1572 Gregory XIII, Pope from 1572-1585.

Tycho Brahe observed a supernova.

Calvin's "Institutes" were published in German for the first time.

Beza wrote Knox.

Aug 24:  St. Bartholomew's Day, when, over the next couple of days, up to 20,000 Huguenots were killed in France.

Nov 24:  Knox died in Scotland

1574 Henry III became King of France, to 1589.
1576 Arminius returned to his home following his father's death, after living with Rudolphus Snellius, a professor in Marburg.

Arminius studied theology for 6 years at Leyden.

1580 Gregory XIII approved the Discalced Carmelites.
1582 Use of Gregorian calendar began. 

Feb 24:  Gregory XIII issued a bull which stated that the day following Oct 4 would be Oct 15, thus correcting a calendar problem which had existed for centuries.  The leap year rule is enforced:  every 4th year has an extra day, except when the year ends in "00" when it will not be a leap year, except when a year ending in "00" can be divided by 400, in which case it is a leap year.

Arminius completed his studies at Geneva and Basel; while in Geneva he studied under Beza.

1585 Sixtus V, Pope from 1585-90.
1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots.
1588 Arminius was called by the government of Amsterdam and appointed preacher of the Reformed congregation.
1590 Urban VII, Pope for less than one year.

Gregory XIV, Pope from 1590-1.

1591 Innocent IX, Pope only during 1591.

Galileo demonstrated that the speed of a falling object does not depend on its weight.

1592 Clement VIII, Pope from 1592-1605.
1596 Kepler wrote the first public defense of Copernicus' theory.
1599 Calvin's "Institutes" was published in Spanish for the first time.  McGrath, 142.
1602 Arminius began teaching at the University of Leyden.
1603 Arminius received his doctor of theology.

Elizabeth I died.

1605 Leo XI, Pope for less than one year.

Paul V, Pope from 1605-1621.

1608 Arminius defeated the Calvinist, Franciscus Gomarus, before the supreme court.  The two were asked to bear with one another.
1609 Aug:  Arminius and Gomarus were summoned before the States of Holland for negotiations.

Oct:  Arminius became violently ill and died in Leyden

1610 The Remonstrants, followers of Arminius, presented their position in a document entitled, "The Remonstrance."
1618 Nov 13:  The Synod of Dort was called to deal with the controversy surrounding the Remonstrants; their teachings were condemned.  The Synod produced a document outlining Calvin's thoughts which would become the source of the acronym TULIP.  To learn why there are 5 points, go here.

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