II Timothy

Author

·         Scholars disagree on whether or not Paul wrote II Timothy.

 

Place and Time of Writing

·         Unknown location, but a good guess would be Rome

·         Paul wrote this letter sometime at the end of his travels.  He knows he will die soon, so this may be after the fire in Rome.

·         Paul may have been in prison in Rome for a second time.  If that is true, this time he was most likely in a prison and not under house arrest.

·         We will say 65, in the year that Paul died.

 

Unique Characteristics 

·         One of the Pastoral Epistles.

·         The last letter that Paul wrote.

 

Audience 

·         Timothy

·         Paul knew his life was nearly over, and he hoped Timothy could visit him soon. 

 

Theme

·         Paul commissioned Timothy to faithfully carry on Paul’s work after Paul died.

 

Opening II Timothy Up

 

Why did Paul write the letter?

Paul, at this point, knows his life will soon end.  He mentions that Luke is with him, the same Luke that was with Paul in his second and third missionary trips.  If this was written in Rome after the fire that occurred in Rome, then Rome was in turmoil with Christians being arrested, tortured, and killed.  Paul felt the weight of his impending death, and wanted to write a last letter to Timothy.  In this letter you can tell that Paul knows his death is imminent. 

 

Verses from II Timothy

·         2:1, 2:  “You then, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus.  And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men who will also be qualified to teach others.”

·         2:15:  “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the world of truth.” 

·         3:16, 17:  “All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful to teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the Christian may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.”

·         4:7, 8:  “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.  Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day—and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing.”

·         4:11:  “Only Luke is with me.  Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry.”

·         4:13:  “When you come, bring the cloak that I left with Carpus at Troas, and my scrolls, especially the parchments.”

 

Outline

 

Chapters

1:1-2:  Greetings

1:3-2:26:  Encouragement to be faithful

3:1-9:  Warning about the last days

3:10-4:5:  Paul’s charge to Timothy

4:6-18:  Paul’s last words about his upcoming death

4:19-22:  Closing remarks

 

Timeline so far      Additions are boldfaced     All dates are approximate

 

63BC

Rome Empire conquered Israel without fighting

44BC

Julius Caesar assassinated by Brutus, Cassius, and others.  Mark Antony tries to seize power, and he and Octavian (Caesar’s nephew) fight for power.

40BC

The Roman Empire made Herod the Great king of Israel

37BC

Antony married Cleopatra in Egypt

31BC

Octavian’s forces defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces; they committed suicide the next year.

27BC

Octavian is given name of Augustus, becomes Augustus Caesar.  This is the beginning of Pax Romana

4 BC

Jesus born

4 BC

Joseph, Mary, and Jesus flee to Egypt because Herod the Great wanted to kill Jesus

4 BC

Herod the Great died

4 BC

After Herod the Great died, the kingdom of the Jews was divided and given to Herod’s three sons:

The northern part, north of Nazareth, went to Philip.

The middle part called Galilee, north of Jerusalem but where Nazareth was located, went to Herod Antipas.  (He is referred to as “Herod” in the Gospels and so this can be confusing.)

The southern part called Judea, where Jerusalem and Bethlehem was located, went to Herod Archelaus. 

AD

All years after this point are AD

Before

6

Joseph, Mary, and Jesus returned to Nazareth instead of moving to Bethlehem

6

Archelaus was removed from power because he was so brutal

6 and after

The Romans did not choose another of Herod’s descendants to control Judea (southern Israel) but instead appointed Roman governors

8

Jesus lost in Jerusalem at age 12; Joseph and Mary found him in the Temple; possible Bar Mitzvah

8-27

Jesus probably worked as a carpenter

26-36

The Roman governor in charge of southern Israel was Pilate

27

Jesus baptized by John the Baptist

27-30

Jesus traveled in Israel and preached, taught, and performed miracles

30

1.  Jesus was crucified under the Roman governor Pilate, raises from the dead three days later and ascends out of sight about a month-and-a-half later

2.  The Apostles return to Jerusalem and pick a replacement for Judas

3.  Day of Pentecost

4.  Over 3000 people become Christian

5.  Christianity spreads outside of Israel

30-50

Peter was the leader of the Christian movement

33

Paul became a Christian

48-50

Paul went on his First Missionary Trip

50

Council of Jerusalem

51-90

We do not know what John did during this time period

50-55

Paul went on his Second Missionary Trip

·         Paul wrote Galatians, I Thessalonians, and II Thessalonians

54-68

Nero was Roman emperor

55-60

Paul went on his Third Missionary Trip

·         Paul wrote Romans, and I & II Corinthians

60-62

Paul arrested in Jerusalem, taken to Rome, and lived under house arrest

·         Paul wrote Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians

63

Paul released from prison and travelled; he may have gone to Spain

  • Paul wrote I Timothy

64

Fire in Rome.  The emperor Nero blamed, persecuted, and killed many Christians.  This was the first Roman persecution of Christians. 

65

1.  Paul back in Rome

2.  Paul wrote II Timothy

3.  Peter and Paul martyred around this year in Rome

66

Some of the Jews got tired of the Roman rule and killed many Roman soldiers.  They thus took back the land of Israel for the Jews.

66-70

The Romans counter-attacked.  The Romans lost one battle, but won the war.

68

Mark written around this year

70

The Romans captured Jerusalem and burned the Temple. 

80

Matthew and Luke written around this year

81-96

Domitian is Roman emperor

90

John and Acts written around this year

95

1.  Persecution of Christians

2.  John was placed on the island of Patmos as a prisoner of Domitian

96

1.  Domitian died

2.  John was probably released from Patmos; he probably traveled to Ephesus where he stayed for the rest of his life

100

John died

367

First listing of the 27 books in a letter written by an Egyptian bishop

390s

Two councils “closed” the NT canon to those 27 books

1200s

NT divided into chapters

1500s

NT divided into verses

 

 

©2016 Mark Nickens All Rights Reserved

 

Questions/comments, contact Mark at marknickens@gmail.com